Logo CIOP CIOPMapa serwisu Wersja polska
CIOPWsteczPoziom wyżejCIOP
.. | Volume 9 Number 2, 2003 (free)

Volume 9 Number 2, 2003






Relevance of the EMG/Grip Relationship in Isometric Anisotonic Conditions
Laurent Claudon

The aim of the present study was to develop a relationship to evaluate grip force using the electromyogram (EMG) in isometric anisotonic conditions.
The EMGs of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and the extensor digitorum (ED) were recorded in 3 flexion-extension positions of the wrist (30° flexion, 30° extension, and 60° extension) associated with 3 positions of the forearm (70° pronation, prono-supination, and 70° supination). For each position, the participants had to follow linear ramp targets (2 rates of increase and decrease) displayed on an oscilloscope.
The results show the best fit is a quadratic type force-EMG relationship. Some aspects such as the rate of force variation and the forearm and wrist positions are then discussed along with the limitations of the relationship.

The Impact of Participatory Ergonomics on Working Conditions, Quality, and Productivity
Majid Motamedzade, Houshang Shahnavaz, Anoushiravan Kazemnejad, Adel Azar, & Hossein Karimi

A participatory ergonomics model was designed for improving working condi-tions, quality, and productivity in a medium-sized manufacturing enterprise by making use of a Supportive Expert Team (SET).
In order to implement the model, a team-based structure consisting of a Steering Committee (SC) and 2 Action Groups (AGs) was designed and a 5-phase methodology followed. To validate the model, a similar factory was selected as control.
Performance of the model was successful throughout the project. AGs under the supervision of the SC and the support of the SET designed and implemented several ergonomics solutions using local resources.
Our findings showed that, in comparison with the control factory, application of such a model could be considered as a provider of a more humanized work environment as well as a more efficient and cost-effective approach.

Individual Differences in Behavioral Compliance to Warnings Representing Varying Degrees
Jeanne L. Weaver, Teresa N. Gerber, Peter A. Hancock,& H.C. Neil Ganey

Research regarding warning compliance has often emphasized the physical aspects of the warning itself. Here, we examine the role of the perceiver in sensation seeking and health orientation as individual difference variables that affect behavioral compliance to a health warning. The experiment used a labo-ratory-based simulation of a chemistry demonstration that has been used in previous warnings research. In addition, however, individual difference effects of sensation seeking and health orientation were investigated. Among the sig-nificant findings were a significant interaction between condition assignment and sensation seeking on compliance outcome and a significant interaction between condition and health orientation. These results indicate that individual difference variables represent significant influences on the degree to which persons comply with warnings.

Reasons for Applying Innovations for Scaffolding Work
Annelise M. de Jong, Henk van der Molen, Peter Vink, Sandra Eikhout, & Ernst Koningsveld

In this paper reasons for applying and for not applying technical and organisa-tional innovations in scaffolding work are studied. In a participatory ergonomic approach these innovations were developed to reduce problems concerning physical load of scaffolders. In this study reasons for the adoption of the inno-vations in the scaffolding sector are evaluated in 2 studies, in 48 companies.
More than half of the scaffolding sector in the Netherlands adopted the innovations. Reasons for applying innovations concerned improvement of work and health and satisfaction with usage. The reason for not applying the innova-tions concerned specific situations, such as offshore work, in which innovations were not applicable.

Safeguarding Crushing Points by Limitation of Forces
Detlef Mewes & Fritz Mauser

Limitation of forces can be a simple measure to safeguard crushing points at doors, machines, and vehicles. In this connection different standards define a threshold force value of 150 N. This widely accepted value refers to static forces only. The dynamic forces that arise from impact on a person are frequently ignored, although they are generally higher than the static forces.
The article describes an instrument for the measurement of static and dynamic crushing forces. This instrument has a stiffness that approximates the average stiffness of human fingers as one of the most at-risk parts of the human body with regard to crushing injuries. Sensory tests were carried out to define dynamic forces considered admissible at crushing points.

The Effect of Seat Design on Vibration Comfort
Andi R. Wijaya, Peter Jönsson, & Örjan Johansson

A field study was done to evaluate different seat designs in the aspect of mini-mizing vibration transmission and reducing the level of discomfort experienced by drivers subjected to transient vibration. Two seat designs (sliding or fixed in the horizontal direction) were compared in an experiment based on variation of sitting posture, speed, and type of obstacle. The comparison was done by assessing discomfort and perceived motion and by vibration measurement. Ten professional drivers were used as participants. Maximum Transient Vibration Value and Vibration Dose Value were used in the evaluation. The results showed that a sliding seat is superior in attenuating vibration containing transient vibra-tion in the horizontal direction. It was also perceived as giving less overall and low back discomfort compared to a fixed seat.

Accidents are Normal and Human Error Does Not Exist: A New Lookat the Creation of Occupational Safety
Sidney W.A. Dekker

“Human error” is often cited as cause of occupational mishaps and industrial accidents. Human error, however, can also be seen as an effect (rather than the cause) of trouble deeper inside systems. The latter perspective is called the “new view” in ergonomics today. This paper details some of the antecedents and implications of the old and the new view, indicating that human error is a judgment made in hindsight, whereas actual performance makes sense to workers at the time. Support for the new view is drawn from recent research into accidents as emergent phenomena without clear “root causes;” where deviance has become a generally accepted standard of normal operations; and where organizations reveal “messy interiors” no matter whether they are pre-disposed to an accident or not.

A Simple and Flexible Risk Assessment Method in the Work Environment
Piia Tint & Gunnar Kiivet

The existing risk assessment models in the work environment (on the basis of Standard No. BS 8800:1996; British Standards Institution, 1996) contain the need to determine the probability of the occurrence and the severity of conse-quences of the influence of hazardous factors on the worker. The determination of the probabilities of the influence of hazards (noise, vibration, chemicals, etc.) is complicated.
The authors of this article have developed a simple risk assessment method that does not contain the probabilities. The method is based on a 2-step model that could be enlarged into a 6-step model.
The implementation possibilities of the model are presented. The existing norms in the work environment in Estonia were analysed and the safety level of a wood-processing factory was determined.

Na górę strony

Institute seat
Main PageWords indexBIP pageCIOP

Copyright © Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
CIOP-PIB holds copyright in the information available on this website, unless otherwise stated. Copyright in any third-party materials found on this website must also be respected. Reproducing part or whole material contained on this website for dissemination is forbidden. The material contained on this website may be reproducer as part or whole solely for private purposes.

ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, tel. (+48 22) 623 36 98, fax (+48 22) 623 36 93